International Journal of Current Research in Physiology and Pharmacology en-US (Journal Office) (Support SP) Mon, 24 May 2021 00:00:00 -0400 OJS 60 Ocimum Species: Ethnomedicinal Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Importance <p>Plant species belonging to the Ocimum genus are among the most popular medicinal plants and are being used for several purposes in ethnomedicine. Ocimum is universally cultivated however; the geographical distribution highlights three major centers of Ocimum diversity, these are: the tropical areas of America, the tropical region of Asia and the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa. Ocimum species have been employed traditionally for several medicinal purposes including antioxidant, antibacterial, hypoglycaemic, hepatoprotective, antiviral and other medicinal purposes. Though scientists have carried-out studies and chronicled the pharmacological potentials of Ocimum species, documents containing these data seem to be disassembled, making it difficult to really distinguish the pharmacologically useful species from those that are not and also to get comprehensive information about the medicinal species in this genus. Hence, the aim of this review is to outline classified information on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacological importance of some Ocimum species that have been reported by different researchers. In carrying-out this review, the search for literature was done via relevant databases including PubMed, Springer, Web of Science, Science Direct, Embase, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Scopus. The species reviewed are the most widely used from the Ocimum genus in traditional medicine and they are also the most researched for intended use in conventional therapeutic practice. Literature reveals that these species contain several compounds which are responsible for the numerous pharmacological activities elicited by them including antimalarial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects.</p> Chinedu Enegide, Ofili Charles C Copyright (c) 2021 Chinedu Enegide and Ofili Charles C Mon, 24 May 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Evidence supporting the use of Combretum nigricans as an antimalarial agent in ethnomedicine <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong><em> Combretum nigricans</em> (Combretaceae) is a small, smooth bark tree used in traditional medicine for the treatment of prurigo, dysentery, fever and other symptoms of acute malaria in North-Central Nigeria. <strong>Materials and Methods</strong><strong>: </strong>The antimalarial activity of <em>C nigricans </em>hydro-methanol crude leaf extract was evaluated against <em>Plasmodium berghei </em>in mice. The Peters’ 4-day suppressive test against early malaria infection and Rane’s curative test against established malaria were employed in assessing the antimalarial activity of the crude extract. In each test model, five groups containing five mice each were used. Group 1 mice were administered with 10 ml distilled water/kg b.w. p.o., groups 2 - 4 were administered with 200, 400, and 800 mg extract/kg b.w. p.o. respectively, while group 5 mice were administered with artesunate 10 mg/kg b.w. p.o. <strong>Result</strong><strong>: </strong>All doses of <em>C. nigricans </em>extract employed for the study (200 – 800 mg/kg b.w. p.o.) gave significant (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) chemosuppressive effect against <em>P. berghei</em>, this effect was observed to be dose-related; while the 400 mg/kg extract dose gave the highest curative effect. Compared to control, the extract also prolonged the mean survival time at all doses, and as well prevented the characteristic decrease in body temperature elicited by <em>P. berghei </em>in mice. The LD<sub>50</sub> of the extract was &gt;5000 mg/kg b.w. p.o. in mice. <strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>: </strong>The result from the study indicates that <em>C. nigicans</em> crude leaf extract is safe orally and possesses significant antimalarial activity.</p> Chinedu Enegide, Peter Akah, Charles Ofili, Uzuazokaro Agatemor, Solomon Ameh, Jacob Dabum, Ifeoma Onah Copyright (c) 2021 Chinedu Enegide, Peter Akah, Charles Ofili, Uzuazokaro Agatemor, Solomon Ameh, Jacob Dabum, Ifeoma Onah Mon, 24 May 2021 00:00:00 -0400