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Review Articles
Published: 2023-05-28

Species of curcuma: a source of anticancer agents

Department of Pharmacology, CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, PTU, Jalandhar Punjab
Chandigarh college of Pharmacy Landran Mohali

Aslam Hamid Khan



Cancer, Personalized medicine, therapeutic outcome, tumor.


Cancer alludes to any one of a huge number of maladies characterized by the advancement of irregular cells that isolate wildly and have the capacity to invade and devastate ordinary body tissue. Cancer regularly has the capacity to spread all through your body. Cancer is the second-leading cause of passing in the world. But survival rates are moving forward for numerous sorts of cancer, much obliged to enhancements in cancer screening, treatment and avoidance. Cancer is one of the foremost feared infections which influences individuals all through the globe. Treatment of this malady has been a major challenge for clinicians. With the understanding of the instrument of cancer advancement, it was found that the way of life and nourishment propensity is one of the causes of cancer. Herbs and flavours are minor constituents of our eating less; they have appeared to have a few therapeutic properties with numerous anticancer characteristics. This audit centres on the potential anticancer impacts of species of the sort Curcuma commonly utilize as herbs and flavours customarily.

Keywords: Chemotherapeutic medicines, Cancer, Curcuma, Curcumin.



Cancer may be a complex bunch of maladies that are characterised by a quick and uncontrolled arrangement of irregular cells, which may mass together to create a development or tumor or multiply all through the body, starting unusual development at other locales. The advancement of cancer happens through a multistage handle, which incorporates start, advancement and movement [1-4]. Endogenous and natural components drive the move between the diverse stages of cancer and include diverse biochemical mechanisms and hereditary components. Cancer is the driving cause of mortality and dreariness around the world. The most shapes of treatment for cancer in people are surgery, radiation and chemotherapy [5-8]. Cancer chemo-therapeutic operators can frequently give transitory help of side effects, prolongation of life, and every so often cure. Still, numerous of them have appeared to cause different side impacts. Based on the discoveries, phytochemicals and subsidiaries in plants are promising choices for the progressed and less poisonous cancer treatment. The National Cancer Organized has recognised a few commonly utilised herbs having cancer-preventive properties. Those incorporate individuals of the Allium sp. (garlic, onions and chives); individuals of the Labiatae family (basil, mints, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme); individuals of the Zingiberaceae family (turmeric and ginger); individuals of the Umbelliferae family (anise, caraway, celery, chervil, cilantro, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel, and parsley). The center of this survey is on potential anticancer impacts of the sort Curcuma of the Zingiberaceae family, their anticancer specialists and a diagram of their conceivable component of activity [9-13].

General features of Curcuma

Curcuma genus is ordered under the family Zingiberaceae. The class contains around 80 species. Their topographical conveyance is all through Southeast Asia, China, India, New Guinea and northern Australia. Curcuma is a herbaceous plant with thick, plump rhizomes, pseudo stems and leaf-cutting edges [14, 15]. They have bloom spikes that emerge from the highest point of the pseudo stem or, some of the time, on a different stem straightforwardly from the rhizome. Inward piece of rhizomes shifts in colour, i.e., white, cream, yellow, orange, blue, pale blue, green and dark. The rhizomes of Curcuma have been utilised as a wellspring of food, flavour, fixings, and medications [16-18]. A considerable lot of types of this sort have been utilised customarily in the treatment of different sicknesses and neurotic circumstances. The accompanying types of Curcuma have been read up and revealed as their enemy of proliferative, apoptotic and anticancer movement [16, 19, 20].

Curcuma amada

Curcuma amada Roxb is otherwise called mango ginger since the rhizomes are basically the same as ginger yet have a crude mango taste. The principal utilisation of mango ginger rhizome is in assembling pickles and culinary arrangements [21, 22]. The natural exercises of mango ginger incorporate cell reinforcement action, antibacterial movement, antifungal action, calming action, platelet collection inhibitory action, cytotoxicity, an unfavourably susceptible action, hypotriglyceridemic action, saline solution shrimp deadly action, enterokinase inhibitory action, CNS (focal sensory system) depressant and pain relieving action [23, 24]. The anticancer property of Curcuma amada removed with various dissolvable was accounted for against human enormous cell cellular breakdown in the lungs (NCI-H460) cell and (A-549) human little cell lung carcinoma cells, every one of the concentrates showed relatively higher harmfulness towards disease cells when contrasted and ordinary cells [23, 25, 26]. The anticancer potential and the system of activity of a supercritical CO2 concentrate of C amada in the human glioblastoma (U-87MG) cell line exhibited higher cytotoxicity than temozolomide, etoposide, curcumin and turmeric separately with particularity towards mind growth cells. C amada treatment prompted apoptosis in glioblastoma cells in a portion subordinate way and down-directed qualities related to apoptosis, cell expansion, telomerase movement, ontogenesis and medication obstruction in glioblastoma cells [27, 28]. C amada acts through the AKT flagging pathway, which hinders AKT (protein Kinase B) and adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) phosphorylation. It additionally down-directs heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and AMPKα qualities. AKT, when liberated, add to the turn of events or advancement of the disease. The anticancer action displayed by this spice might be because of the presence of mixtures like difurocumenonol and amadaldehyde which have been exhibited to have anticancer movement [29, 30].

Curcuma aromatica

Curcuma aromatica Salisb is regularly known as wild turmeric. An animal variety stands second among the generally utilised curcumin species close to normal turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.). It has been in customary use as a fragrant therapeutic restorative [31, 32]. A portion of the pharmacological possibilities of wild turmeric and its concentrates are mitigating, wound recuperating, hostile to melanogenic, cell reinforcement and free revolutionary rummaging action, hostile to repellent, antitussive, hostile to platelet movement and antinephrotoxic action [33, 34]. Watery concentrate of Curcuma aromatica was accounted for to restrain human colon carcinoma (LS-174-Immune system microorganism) multiplication. The acceptance of apoptosis is through both extraneous and natural pathways by actuation of caspases-8, 9, and 3. The antitumor action might include apoptosis and enlistment of the G2/M stage capture through down guidelines of cyclin B1 and CDK1 and without the investment of p53 [35, 36]. Curcuma aromatica oil showed an expected defensive system against the change of esophageal epithelial to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in rodents, perhaps through its capacity to safeguard MnSOD (superoxide dismutase) capability. Conservation of MnSOD is related to the expected defensive instrument against change of esophageal epithelial to EAC [17, 37]. The primary enemy of the neoplasm element of C aromatica is the oils present in the plant with moderately low harmful impacts. In vivo, investigations of the impact of C aromatica oil (CAO) in Kunming male mice embedded with hepatoma ascites and C57L/J mice vaccinated with mouse liver hepatoma (Hepa1-6) cells an orthotropic HCC mouse model have detailed the huge hindrance of development of embedded hepatoma in both the model of study [38, 39]. The hindrance of CAO on the development of hepatoma may be related to the concealment of PCNA (Multiplying cell atomic antigen) protein, diminishing DNA-polymerase δ action and impedance with DNA blend [40]. Clinically, C fragrant oil was viewed as more successful than synthetic medications in treating patients with essential liver malignant growth through hepatic blood vessel imbuement. Treatment with CAO showed longer endurance time and lower poisonousness side effects [40, 41]. CAO was found to display an enemy of proliferative impact in human hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa1-6 cells by promoting apoptosis. This hindrance of development by CAO is related to cell cycle capture, cytochrome C movement, caspase-3 enactment, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) debasement and loss of mitochondrial layer potential [42, 43]. The anticancer movement of C sweet-smelling is expected to the sesquiterpenoids β-elemene, Germacrone and curcumin subordinates which have been accounted for to have anticancer action [44, 45].

Curcuma caesia

Curcuma caesia Roxb is normally known as dark turmeric because of its recognisable pale blue dark rhizome with an unpleasant and impactful smell. Writing has revealed it has calming, hepatoprotective, cancer prevention agent, antiasthmatic, antitumour, stomachic and carminative properties [46, 47]. The counter proliferative movement of C caesia was accounted for against three human malignant growth cell lines-(MCF-7) human bosom disease, (HCT-116) human colon malignant growth and (Dad 1) ovarian malignant growth utilising the SRB (sulforhodamine B) examine. C caesia showed cytotoxic impact against EAC in vitro and antitumour action in Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC)- treated mice [48, 49]. C caesia methanol extricate essentially diminished the growth volume, cancer weight, and reasonable growth cell and expanded the non-suitable growth cell and life expectancy of the EAC bearing control mice. The potential antitumour action is probably by its immediate cytotoxic impact and cancer prevention agent property [50, 51]. The lessening of oxidative pressure in various tissues of EAC bearing mice diminished the reasonability of EAC cells. The anticancer property of C caesia was accounted for against diethyl nitrosamine (Sanctum) initiated liver malignant growth [52, 53]. C caesia had the option to decrease the number of preneoplastic knobs, weaken the expanded exercises of marker proteins like AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), High mountain (antacid phosphatase) and Hurt (Acetylcholine esterase) brought about by Nook enlistment, forestall exhaustion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic cancer prevention agent guard framework in livers of creatures treated with Lair when contrasted and typical creatures. C caesia might have the option to fix hepatic tissue harm brought about by growth enlistment. C caesia likewise brought down TNF α (growth rot factor-α) level and NF-κB (atomic element κB) restricting action in treated mice. It might have calming, insect proliferative and hostile to malignant growth properties and the dynamic parts might apply anticancer impacts through the TNF α interceded NF-κB flagging pathway [54-56].

Curcuma longa

Curcuma longa is usually known as turmeric. It is utilised as a zest, for conferring variety to food and as food additives. The spice is utilised customarily for various infirmities and infections. It is utilised against biliary problems, anorexia, coryza, hack, diabetic injuries, hepatic issues, stiffness, and sinusitis [57-59]. The remedial use of this plant has been completely considered and was displayed to have a wide range of natural activities. These incorporate its calming, cancer prevention agent, anticarcinogenic, anticoagulant, antifertility, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antifibrotic, antibody, antiulcer, hypertensive and hypocholesterolemic exercises [60, 61]. The expected anticancer movement of turmeric was accounted for by Kuttan et al. in the mid-1980; ethanol concentrate of rhizomes of Curcuma longa extricate repressed the cell development in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and was cytotoxic to lymphocytes and Dalton's lymphoma [62, 63]. Move over, in a similar report, intraperitoneal infusion of liposome embodied curcumin repressed cancer development and expanded the endurance pace of mice infused with Dalton's lymphoma cells. In a relative investigation of 44 plants, C longa was found to repress the development of human colon carcinoma cells lines HCT116, SW480, CaCo2, HT29, and SW837, causing a portion subordinate sub-G1 part of cells [64, 65]. C longa was additionally found to hinder the development of two leukemic cell lines; myeloid leukemia (U937) and intense lymphoblastic leukemia (Molt4), human lung carcinoma (A549), human cervical malignant growth cells (HeLa) and murine melanoma cell line (B164A5). Cytotoxic impact of n-hexane concentrate of C longa was accounted for on (A549) cellular breakdown in the lungs cell line and the concentrate likewise showed the restraint of telomerase movement in a portion subordinate way. Various mixtures have been segregated and portrayed from C longa. The fundamental parts are curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin, mono demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, dihydro curcumin and cyclo curcumin [66, 67]. The anticancer impacts of the fundamental part of curcumin and its analogs have been completely investigated by Aggrawal, Pongrakhananon, Perrone et al. The anticancer movement of different mixtures and oils removed from C longa has additionally been accounted for. Curcuma C20 dialdehyde secluded from C longa was accounted for to stifle the multiplication of HCT116, HT29 and HeLa cells. Openness to bring down groupings of this compound altogether initiated cell cycle capture at the G1 stage for both HCT116 and HT29 cells, while higher focuses expanded the sub-G1 populaces [68, 69]. Until now, no less than 185 mixtures of terpenes have been separated or recognised from leaves, blossoms, roots and rhizomes of C longa, including 68 monoterpenes, 109 sesquiterpenes, five diterpenes, and three triterpenoids. A portion of the oils has likewise been accounted for their anticancer action [70, 71].

Curcuma mangga

Curcuma mangga is utilised customarily for stomachic, gastric ulcer, cholic, fever, chest torment. It has antibacterial, pain relieving and hepatic defensive movement. C mangga was accounted for to restrain the development of human bosom malignant growth (MCF-7) and human colorectal adinocarcinoma (HT-29) cell line by MTT multiplication examine [72, 73]. The concentrate of C mangga showed solid cytotoxic impacts against EBV-EA-initiated Raji cells. The cytotoxic movement of C mangga hexane and ethyl acetic acid derivation extricate on HT-29 cells was additionally revealed by Hong et al [74, 75]. The concentrates had the option to prompt early and late apoptosis and captured the cells at the G0/G1 stage. Ethanol concentrate of C mangga likewise restrained the development of human prostate malignant growth (PC-3) cell lines. It causes down guideline of 5AR1, androgen-receptor and P13K articulation alongside dihydrotestosterone proteins. C mangga somewhat hindered the development of PC-3 cells through down guidelines of the 5AR (androgen receptor) pathway [76, 77].

Curcuma purpurascens

C purpurascens is privately known as 'Temu Tis' or alternately 'Solo's in Indonesia. The powdered rhizomes are typically taken along with different spices to treat illnesses like hacks and skin diseases. The spice has been accounted for to have a great antifungal action [78, 79]. C purpurascens was accounted for to actuate apoptosis in (HT-29) human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells by enacting the mitochondrial passing pathway through the Bcl-2/Bax/Bcl-xl and ROS (responsive oxygen species) creation [80, 81]. The rhizome oil was accounted for to have a solid inhibitory impact against HT29 cells yet showed exceptionally gentle cytotoxicity against HCT-116 cells. Its inhibitory impact against HT-29 cells might be because of the increase of COX-2 articulation levels by ar-turmerone and synergistic impacts of different constituents, for example, turmerone, germacrone, germacrene-B, and curlone [82, 83]. In vivo investigations of the anticancer impact of C purpurascens were accounted for in azoxymethane (AOM) actuated colon disease of male Sprague Dawley rodents. Dichloromethane concentrates of C purpurascens diminished the distorted tomb foci (ACF) arrangement and decreased articulation of the PCNA [84, 85]. The concentrate upregulated Bax and down controlled Bcl-2, which might actuate apoptosis of changed cells. The concentrate might have decreased the oxidative pressure brought about by AOM, as shown by the raised cell reinforcement enzymatic action and diminished malondialdehyde level [86, 87].

Curcuma xanthorrhiza

Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb is normally known as 'Temu Lawak' in Malaysia. The rhizome of this spice is like ginger with a fragrant, impactful scent and unpleasant taste. C xanthorrhiza is accounted to be valuable for hepatitis, liver grievances, diabetes, stiffness, hypertension and heart problems [87, 88]. It has additionally shown diuretic, mitigating, hostile to oxidant, hypertensive, hostile to rheumatic, hostile to hepatotoxic, hostile to dysmenorrhoeal, antispasmodic, against leucorrhoea, against bacterial and antifungal impacts [89, 90]. It diminishes cholesterol, treats clogging and headaches and expands the stream of milk during bosom taking care. Methanol concentrate of C xanthorrhiza was accounted for to lessen ornithine decarboxylase articulation in mouse skin, decreased the number of growths and level of events of cancer-bearing mice in multistage skin carcinogenesis prompted by 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracite and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetic acid derivation [91, 92]. Rough concentrate of this spice was accounted for to show antitumour properties against sarcoma180 ascites in mice. The antitumour impact was expected to bisabolane sesquiterpenoids; α-curcumene, ar-turmerone and xanthorrhizol [93, 94]. The anticancer property of xanthorrhizol had been concentrated widely and the compound was accounted for to have hostile to proliferative exercises in many sorts of human bosom disease cells-MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, SK-BR-3, MCF7, YMB-1 and T47D [88, 95, 96]. Moreover, the anticancer exercises of xanthorrhizol have additionally been accounted for in colon malignant growth, cervical disease, liver disease, skin disease, cellular breakdown in the lungs, tongue disease, oral malignant growth, esophageal malignant growth and ovarian disease. The anticancer components of xanthorrhizol are exhaustive and various by balancing various degrees of cell development and apoptosis. Its instrument is firmly connected with its antioxidative and calming exercises, enlistment of apoptosis and cell cycle capture [89, 91, 97].

Curcuma zedoaria

Curcuma zedoaria Rosc is otherwise called white turmeric. C zedoaria is a notable ethnic-restorative plant that is utilised in the treatment of different types of sicknesses, for example, stomachic, deworming, emmenagogic, retching, feminine haematomata, therapy of leucorrhoea release, sensitivities, dropsy, uncleanliness, lymphangitis, furunculosis [98, 99]. C zedoaria is accounted for to have antimicrobial, antifungal antiamoebic, antinociceptive, antiallergic, antiulcer, neutralizer, mitigating, antimutagenic, cancer prevention agent, pain relieving, platelet actuating exercises, hepatoprotective, hemagglutinating, cytotoxic and larvicidal impact [100, 101]. The cytotoxic movement of C zedoaria was accounted for against human enormous cell cellular breakdown in the lungs (NCI-H40) Curcuma zedoaria displayed enemy of multiplication and attack exercises against (TE-8) human esophageal malignant growth cells showing particularity towards disease cells at lower dosages [47, 102]. The enlistment of apoptosis in TE-8 cells treated with the C zedoaria removes happened through the caspase cascade dependent pathways, which included actuation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP alongside concealment of Bcl-2 through the Akt/mTOR, flagging pathway [103-105]. C zedoaria upregulated PTEN and down managed phosphorylated Akt, mTOR (robotic objective of rapamycin) and STAT3 (Signal transducer and activator of record 3) articulations and lessened the FGFR1 (Fibroblast development factor receptor 1) and MMP-2 (lattice metalloproteinase-2) [106-108]. The antitumour impact was additionally analysed in the xenograft mouse model of human esophageal disease; it was observed that cancer development in mice was fundamentally smothered through the oral organisation of the concentrate. Watery concentrate of Curcuma zedoaria was accounted for to hinder the metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, which prompts a lessening in the quantity of lung metastatic surface knobs and the expansion of life expectancy. The macrophage capability tweaking action by C zedoaria seems to underlie its enemy of metastatic action [109-111]. Concentrates of C zedoaria were likewise answered to have a cytotoxic impact against (SiHa) human cervix squamous cell carcinoma and (HepG2) human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Curcuma zedoaria lessened the growth volume, stuffed cell volume, reasonable cancer cell count, standardised hematological boundaries and further developed the cancer prevention agent safeguards in Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) of mice [112, 113]. Various mixtures detached from C zedoaria were found to display cytotoxic movement against different disease cell-α-curcumin segregated from C zedoaria actuated apoptosis in SiHa cells, sesquiterpenoid compound isocurcumenol showed antitumour impact on A549 (human lung carcinoma), KB (nasopharyngeal carcinoma) and K562 (leukemic cells) as well as the DLA (murine lymphoma) cells. To some degree, refined polysaccharides showed antitumour impact in mice relocated with sarcoma 180 cells, by which it caused a diminished growth size of mice and forestalled the chromosomal transformation. The curcuminoids were accounted for to restrain the development of ovarian carcinoma (OVCAR-3), leukemic (HL-60), S-180 sarcoma, and mouse cervical (U-14) cells. Curcumenone and curcumenol showed solid enemies of proliferative movement and were found to initiate apoptotic cell passing of human bosom disease (MCF-7) cells. Curzerenone and alismol repressed expansion of MCF-7, human cervix carcinoma (Ca Ski) and HCT-116 [114-116].


From the writing review of various Curcuma species, it was found that various species have been utilised generally as flavours as well with respect to clinical purposes in the treatment of various illnesses and sicknesses. A couple of species examined above have been displayed to have likely anticancer movement in both in vitro and in vivo models of malignant growth. Numerous dynamic mixtures have additionally been recognised from various types of Curcuma, the most being from C longa, with a portion of the dynamic mixtures normal between different species. In any case, the anticancer malignant growth action of various species has not yet been accounted for. Thusly, in view of the flow research, a significant number of the types of this class presently can't seem to be investigated and evaluated for their anticancer movement and possible improvement as anticancer medications or to be utilised in mix with different medications. A definite investigation of the system of activity is likewise expected to have a superior comprehension of the helpful viability and to stay away from unfriendly responses and secondary effects when utilised clinically in people.


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  46. M. Pakkirisamy, S.K. Kalakandan, K. Ravichandran, Phytochemical screening, GC-MS, FT-IR analysis of methanolic extract of Curcuma caesia Roxb (Black Turmeric), Pharmacognosy Journal 9(6) (2017).
  47. M. Maqbool, D. Dugassa, G. Fekadu, Adverse Drug Reactions of Antiepileptic Drugs in the Neurology Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India, Archives of Neuroscience 8(2) (2021).
  48. D. Sonjit, M. Prodyut, M.K. Zaman, Curcuma caesia Roxb. and it's medicinal uses: a review, International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry 3(2) (2013) 370-375.
  49. I. Ara, M. Maqbool, M. Zehravi, Psychic consequences of infertility on couples: A short commentary, Open Health 3(1) (2022) 114-119.
  50. S. Jose, T.D. Thomas, Comparative phytochemical and anti‑bacterial studies of two indigenous medicinal plants Curcuma caesia Roxb. and Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb, International Journal of Green Pharmacy (IJGP) 8(1) (2014).
  51. M. Maqbool, I. Gani, Utilization of Statins in Reducing Comorbidities of Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review, Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Community Medicine 4(4) (2018).
  52. H.P. Devi, P. Mazumder, L.P. Devi, Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of Curcuma caesia Roxb. rhizome extracts, Toxicology Reports 2 (2015) 423-428.
  54. A.K. Pandey, A.R. Chowdhury, Volatile constituents of the rhizome oil of Curcuma caesia Roxb. from central India, Flavour and fragrance journal 18(5) (2003) 463-465.
  55. A. Borah, D. Kumar, M. Paw, T. Begum, M. Lal, A review on ethnobotany and promising pharmacological aspects of an endangered medicinal plant, Curcuma caesia Roxb, Turkish Journal of Botany 44(3) (2020) 205-213.
  56. M. Maqbool, F. Bekele, G. Fekadu, Treatment strategies against triple-negative breast cancer: an updated review, Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy (2022) 15-24.
  57. H.P. Ammon, M.A. Wahl, Pharmacology of Curcuma longa, Planta medica 57(01) (1991) 1-7.
  58. C. Araujo, L. Leon, Biological activities of Curcuma longa L, Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 96 (2001) 723-728.
  59. M. Maqbool, S. Javed, A.A. Bajwa, Assessment OF pain management IN postoperative cases using different scales and questionnaires, INDO AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES 6(1) (2019) 983-987.
  60. L. Omosa, J. Midiwo, V. Kuete, Curcuma longa, Medicinal spices and vegetables from Africa, Elsevier2017, pp. 425-435.
  61. M. Maqbool, M.A. Dar, S. Rasool, I. Gani, M. Khan, Substance use disorder and availability of treatment options: an overview, Journal of research in health science 1 (2019) 4-10.
  62. R. Kuttan, P. Bhanumathy, K. Nirmala, M. George, Potential anticancer activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa), Cancer letters 29(2) (1985) 197-202.
  64. S. Li, W. Yuan, G. Deng, P. Wang, P. Yang, B. Aggarwal, Chemical composition and product quality control of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), (2011).
  65. S. Rasool, M. Maqbool, Y. Joshi, Drug utilization studies among ENT patients in various clinical settings: A comprehensive review, Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 9(1-s) (2019) 481-485.
  66. R. Selvam, L. Subramanian, R. Gayathri, N. Angayarkanni, The anti-oxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa), Journal of ethnopharmacology 47(2) (1995) 59-67.
  67. M.A. Dar, M. Maqbool, S. Rasool, Pharmaceutical wastes and their disposal practice in routine, Int J Inf Comput Sci 6 (2019) 76-92.
  68. V. Krup, L.H. Prakash, A. Harini, Pharmacological activities of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn): a review, J Homeop Ayurv Med 2(133) (2013) 2167-1206.1000133.
  69. M. Maqbool, S. Tariq, S. Amjad, Prescribing Practices in Pediatrics and Drug Utilization Studies Promoting Pediatric Health, Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 5(8) (2018) 8070-8076.
  70. R. Ramsewak, D. DeWitt, M. Nair, Cytotoxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of curcumins I–III from Curcuma longa, Phytomedicine 7(4) (2000) 303-308.
  71. M. Maqbool, A. Naeem, S. Aamer, Diabetes Mellitus and Its Various Management Strategies in Practice, Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 5(8) (2018) 8163-+.
  72. W. Widowati, T. Mozef, C. Risdian, H. Ratnawati, S. Tjahjani, F. Sandra, The comparison of antioxidative and proliferation inhibitor properties of Piper betle L., Catharanthus roseus [L] G. Don, Dendrophtoe petandra L., Curcuma mangga Val. extracts on T47D cancer cell line, Int Res J Biochem Bioinform 1(2) (2011) 22-8.
  73. M. Maqbool, M. Dar, S. Rasool, S. Mir, A. Bhat, M. Khan, Clinical pharmacy practice in health care system: A review, Eur J Pharm Med Res 6(4) (2019) 630-633.
  74. Y. Liu, M.G. Nair, Curcuma longa and Curcuma mangga leaves exhibit functional food property, Food chemistry 135(2) (2012) 634-640.
  75. M. Maqbool, N. Nasir, S. Mustafa, Polycystic in ovarian syndrome and its various treatment strategies, INDO AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES 5(9) (2018) 8470-8478.
  76. A.N. Ganur, D.U. Rahayu, H. Dianhar, I. Irwanto, P. Sugita, Terpenoid from Indonesian temu mangga (Curcuma mangga, Val) rhizomes and review of its anticancer towards MCF-7 breast cells, AIP Conference Proceedings, AIP Publishing LLC, 2021, p. 020044.
  77. G. Fekadu, F. Bekele, K. Bekele, S. Hanbisa, G. Belay, M. Maqbool, Drug Use Evaluation of Beta-Blockers in Medical Wards of Nedjo General Hospital, Western Ethiopia, Cardiovascular Therapeutics 2020 (2020).
  78. S.-L. Hong, G.-S. Lee, S.N. Syed Abdul Rahman, O.A. Ahmed Hamdi, K. Awang, N. Aznam Nugroho, S.N. Abd Malek, Essential oil content of the rhizome of Curcuma purpurascens Bl.(Temu Tis) and its antiproliferative effect on selected human carcinoma cell lines, The Scientific World Journal 2014 (2014).
  79. M. Maqbool, A.M. Dar, S. Rasool, M. Khan, Curious case of drug resistant malaria and artemisinin compounds in the modern era, Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (2019) 1-4.
  80. E. Rouhollahi, S. Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, O.A.A. Hamdi, M. Fadaeinasab, M. Hajrezaie, K. Awang, C.Y. Looi, M.A. Abdulla, Z. Mohamed, Evaluation of acute toxicity and gastroprotective activity of curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats, BMC Complementary and Alternative medicine 14 (2014) 1-10.
  81. M. Maqbool, G. Fekadu, D. Dugassa, F. Bekele, E. Turi, D. Simegnew, The pattern of substance abuse in the psychiatry department of a tertiary care of Srinagar hospital, Jammu and Kashmir, India, Archives of Neuroscience 7(4) (2020).
  82. E. Rouhollahi, S.Z. Moghadamtousi, F. Hajiaghaalipour, M. Zahedifard, F. Tayeby, K. Awang, M.A. Abdulla, Z. Mohamed, Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome accelerates rat excisional wound healing: involvement of Hsp70/Bax proteins, antioxidant defense, and angiogenesis activity, Drug design, development and therapy 9 (2015) 5805.
  83. M. Zehravi, M. Maqbool, I. Ara, Healthy lifestyle and dietary approaches to treating polycystic ovary syndrome: a review, Open Health 3(1) (2022) 60-65.
  84. E. Rouhollahi, S.Z. Moghadamtousi, N. Al-Henhena, T. Kunasegaran, M. Hasanpourghadi, C.Y. Looi, S.N. Abd Malek, K. Awang, M.A. Abdulla, Z. Mohamed, The chemopreventive potential of Curcuma purpurascens rhizome in reducing azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats, Drug design, development and therapy 9 (2015) 3911.
  85. I. Ara, M. Maqbool, B. Bukhari, N. Ara, T.A. Hajam, Present status, standardization and safety issues with herbal drugs, International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology 1(3) (2020) 95-101.
  86. S. Suprihatin, C. Tambunan, E. Sinaga, Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Of Temu Tis (Curcuma purpurascens) Rhizome in White Rat (Rattus norvegicus), Journal of Tropical Biodiversity 1(1) (2020) 47-62.
  87. M. Zehravi, M. Maqbool, I. Ara, Depression and anxiety in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a literature survey, International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health 33(6) (2021) 367-373.
  88. E. Rouhollahi, S. Moghadamtousi, M. Abdulla, Z. Mohamed, P0026 The chemopreventive potential of Curcuma purpurascens rhizome in reducing azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats, European Journal of Cancer 51 (2015) e8.
  89. S. Rajkumari, K. Sanatombi, Nutritional value, phytochemical composition, and biological activities of edible Curcuma species: A review, International journal of food properties 20(sup3) (2017) S2668-S2687.
  90. M. Maqbool, G. Fekadu, X. Jiang, F. Bekele, T. Tolossa, E. Turi, G. Fetensa, K. Fanta, An up to date on clinical prospects and management of osteoarthritis, Annals of Medicine and Surgery 72 (2021) 103077.
  91. O. Pramiastuti, S. Wahyuono, N. Fakhrudin, P. Astuti, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Activities of Curcuma purpurascens Blume, A Review, Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology 8(1) 75891.
  92. M. Maqbool, M.A. Dar, I. Gani, S.A. Mir, M. Khan, A.U. Bhat, Maternal health and nutrition in pregnancy: an insight, World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 8(3) (2019) 450-459.
  93. E. Rouhollahi, S. Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, M. Paydar, M. Fadaeinasab, M. Zahedifard, M. Hajrezaie, O. Abdalla Ahmed Hamdi, C. Yeng Looi, M. Ameen Abdulla, K. Awang, Inhibitory effect of Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome on HT-29 colon cancer cells through mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis pathway, BMC complementary and alternative medicine 15(1) (2015) 1-12.
  94. M. Maqbool, S. Rasool, M.A. Dar, R. Bashir, M. Khan, Hepatotoxicity and Hepatoprotective agents: A Mini review, PharmaTutor 7(9) (2019) 34-40.
  95. K.M.M. Koriem, Protective effect of natural products and hormones in colon cancer using metabolome: A physiological overview, Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine 7(10) (2017) 957-966.
  96. J.A. Malik, M. Maqbool, COVID-19: An overview of current scenario, CELLMED 10(3) (2020) 21.1-21.8.
  97. R. Maqbool, M. Maqbool, M. Zehravi, I. Ara, Menstrual distress in females of reproductive age: a literature review, International journal of adolescent medicine and health 34(2) (2021) 11-17.
  98. C.-c. Chen, Y. Chen, Y.-T. Hsi, C.-S. Chang, L.-F. Huang, C.-T. Ho, T.-D. Way, J.-Y. Kao, Chemical constituents and anticancer activity of Curcuma zedoaria roscoe essential oil against non-small cell lung carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo, Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 61(47) (2013) 11418-11427.
  99. M. Zehravi, M. Maqbool, I. Ara, Correlation between obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus, and pregnancy outcomes: an overview, International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health 33(6) (2021) 339-345.
  100. N. Raaman, K. Balasubramanian, Anticancer and antioxidant activity of Curcuma zedoaria and Curcuma amada rhizome extracts, J. Acad. Ind. Res 1 (2012) 91-96.
  101. M. Mohd, M. Maqbool, M.A. Dar, I. Mushtaq, Polycystic ovary syndrome, a modern epidemic: an overview, Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 9(3) (2019) 641-644.
  102. R. Lobo, K.S. Prabhu, A. Shirwaikar, A. Shirwaikar, Curcuma zedoaria Rosc.(white turmeric): a review of its chemical, pharmacological and ethnomedicinal properties, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 61(1) (2009) 13-21.
  103. K.I. Kim, J.W. Kim, B.S. Hong, D.H. Shin, H.Y. Cho, H.K. Kim, H.C. Yang, Antitumor, genotoxicity and anticlastogenic activities of polysaccharide from Curcuma zedoaria, Molecules and cells 10(4) (2000) 392-398.
  104. M. Maqbool, M.A. Dar, I. Gani, S.A. Mir, Animal models in diabetes mellitus: an overview, Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 9(1-s) (2019) 472-475.
  105. A. Majeed, R. Bashir, S. Farooq, M. Maqbool, Preparation, characterization and applications of nanoemulsions: An insight, Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 9(2) (2019) 520-527.
  106. Z. Hou, G. Fang, Research progress of anti-tumor effects of curcuma zedoaria and its active ingredients through immune regulation mechanism, Journal of Clinical and Nursing Research 5(4) (2021) 1-7.
  107. I. Ara, M. Maqbool, I. Gani, Neuroprotective Activity of Herbal Medicinal Products: A Review, International Journal of Current Research in Physiology and Pharmacology (2022) 1-10.
  108. M. Zehravi, M. Maqbool, I. Ara, Polycystic ovary syndrome and infertility: an update, International journal of adolescent medicine and health 34(2) (2021) 1-9.
  109. N. Fitriana, M. Rifa’i, S.T. Wicaksono, N. Widodo, Anticancer effects of Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Roscoe ethanol extract on a human breast cancer cell line, Chemical Papers 77(1) (2023) 399-411.
  110. M. Maqbool, M. Khan, M. Mohammad, M.A. Adesina, G. Fekadu, Awareness about reproductive health in adolescents and youth: a review, Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (2019) 1-5.
  111. I. Ara, M. Maqbool, G. Fekadu, T.A. Hajam, M.A. Dar, Pharmaceutical significance of Nigella sativa L., a wonder herb, Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 3(4) (2020) 04-13.
  112. P. Prasad, M. Chakraborty, S. Haldar, P. Majumder, P.K. Haldar, Evaluation of anti cancer potential of methanol extract of Curcuma zedoaria, Asian J Pharm Clin Res 7(5) (2015) 309-13.
  113. S. Rasool, M. Maqbool, An overview about Hedychium spicatum: a review, Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 9(1-s) (2019) 476-480.
  114. Y. Shin, Y. Lee, Cytotoxic activity from Curcuma zedoaria through mitochondrial activation on ovarian cancer cells, Toxicological research 29 (2013) 257-261.
  115. R.J. Lihite, M. Lahkar, S. Das, D. Hazarika, M. Kotni, M. Maqbool, S. Phukan, A study on adverse drug reactions in a tertiary care hospital of Northeast India, Alexandria journal of medicine 53(2) (2017) 151-156.
  116. M. Maqbool, M.A. Dar, I. Gani, S.A. Mir, M. Khan, Herbal medicines as an alternative source of therapy: a review, World J Pharm Pharm Sci 3 (2019) 374-80.

How to Cite

Altaf Dar, M., & Aslam Hamid Khan. (2023). Species of curcuma: a source of anticancer agents. International Journal of Current Research in Physiology and Pharmacology, 66–77. Retrieved from