International Journal of Current Research in Physiology and Pharmacology 2023-05-28T17:08:26+00:00 Journal Office Open Journal Systems The Impact of Hormones and Migraine Headache in Women's Life – A short communication 2023-05-28T17:08:13+00:00 Imran Gani Mohd Altaf Dar Irfat Ara <p>Migraine headaches occur more frequently in women than in men. Women are more likely to get migraines for longer periods of time than males. It is a chronic neurological condition that affects between 10% and 12% of the population. Women experienced headaches more frequently, for a longer duration, and with greater severity than males. The hypothalamic hypophyseal-ovarian axis regulates women's reproductive cycles through the production of oestrogen and progesterone. Variations in these hormone levels regulate and control every aspect of life, from menstruation to pregnancy, puerperium, and menopause. The luteal or ovulatory phase is divided into the follicular or proliferative phase and the luteal or ovulatory phase. Migraine is classified into two basic types: migraine without aura and migraine with aura. Menstruation is the second most common migraine trigger after stress. During perimenopause, between 8% and 13% of migraine sufferers reported a new beginning of symptoms. Migraine can be treated successfully at any age, whether acute or preventative. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs), antiepileptic drugs topiramate and valproate, beta-blockers such as propranolol, and tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline and nortriptyline are the most frequently suggested treatments. Migraine is a frequent occurrence in women's life. The primary cause of migraine in women is the variation of sex hormone levels during menstruation. Migraines are caused by a woman's hormone levels fluctuating throughout time.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Keywords:</strong> Migraine, hormones, Estrogen, central nervous system, menopause</p> 2023-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Imran Gani, Mohd Altaf Dar, Irfat Ara Stem Cells in Cervical Cancer: An Overview 2023-05-28T17:08:15+00:00 Mohd Altaf Dar Aslam Hamid Khan <p>Cervical cancer has emerged as the leading cause of women's cancer-related deaths despite screening and vaccination programs. Surgery and chemotherapy help patients with cervical cancer live longer, but they do not provide a permanent cure. Radical surgery is the only option in the advanced stage of cervical cancer, which also affects patients' ability to conceive. Sometimes it also causes the disease to return. As a result, new therapeutics must be developed immediately. According to the CSC hypothesis, a tumor has a hierarchical cellular structure with a small subset of cells called cancer stem cells that induce tumorigenesis. The CSCs' tumor-initiating capacity has been the subject of numerous studies. These CSCs are crucial in tumor metastasis, relapse, and radiotherapy resistance. Because they play a role at the beginning of the spread of the tumor, they are thought to improve outcomes. The most well-known gynecological danger is cervical carcinoma, which shows a high malignant growth death rate in females. As a result, research into cervical cancer has increasingly turned to stem cells from the disease. In this review, we have summarized CSCs and CCSCs as emerging key players in cervical cancer early diagnosis and as a therapeutic target in this cancer.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cancer, Cervical Cancer, Cancer Stem Cell, Cervical Cancer Stem Cell, Human Papilloma Virus</p> 2023-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Mohd Altaf Dar, Aslam Hamid Khan, Mashooq Ahmad Mir, Abrar Bashir Malik Cancer Treatment with Nanoparticles: An overview 2023-05-28T17:08:23+00:00 Mohd Altaf Dar Aslam Hamid Khan <p>One of the greatest global causes of death is cancer. Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy are all forms of cancer treatment, but they all have a number of drawbacks, including cytotoxicity, drug resistance, and other restrictions. The surface properties, ideal size, and shape of nanoparticles have revolutionised cancer treatment by enhancing biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and biocompatibility. Additionally, the delivery of bioactive plant-based anticancer medicines such as vinca alkaloids, taxanes, podophyllotoxin, and others has been improved using phytonanotechnology. Novel silver nanoparticles are also used as a delivery mechanism for anticancer medications. In this overview, we'll look at silver nanoparticles for drug delivery in cancer disorders, phytonanotechnology, and important uses of nanotechnology.</p> <p class="p1"><strong>Keywords: </strong>Cancer, Conventional chemotherapy, Mechanism, Nanotechnology, Silver nanoparticles</p> 2023-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Mohd Altaf Dar, Aslam Hamid Khan, Mashooq Ahmad Mir, Abrar Bashir Malik Species of curcuma: a source of anticancer agents 2023-05-28T17:08:18+00:00 Mohd Altaf Dar Aslam Hamid Khan <p>Cancer alludes to any one of a huge number of maladies characterized by the advancement of irregular cells that isolate wildly and have the capacity to invade and devastate ordinary body tissue. Cancer regularly has the capacity to spread all through your body. Cancer is the second-leading cause of passing in the world. But survival rates are moving forward for numerous sorts of cancer, much obliged to enhancements in cancer screening, treatment and avoidance. Cancer is one of the foremost feared infections which influences individuals all through the globe. Treatment of this malady has been a major challenge for clinicians. With the understanding of the instrument of cancer advancement, it was found that the way of life and nourishment propensity is one of the causes of cancer. Herbs and flavours are minor constituents of our eating less; they have appeared to have a few therapeutic properties with numerous anticancer characteristics. This audit centres on the potential anticancer impacts of species of the sort Curcuma commonly utilize as herbs and flavours customarily.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Keywords: </strong>Chemotherapeutic medicines, Cancer, Curcuma, Curcumin.</p> <p> </p> 2023-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 MOHD ALTAF DAR, Aslam Hamid Khan, Mashooq Ahmad Mir, Abrar Bashir Malik Targeting colorectal cancer with targeted therapies: Pathways 2023-05-28T17:08:21+00:00 Mohd Altaf Dar Aslam Hamid Khan <p>Colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the world's most prevalent and deadliest tumors, resulted in around 881,000 melanoma fatalities in 2018. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third-most common cause of all cancer-related deaths globally. The ensuing side effects brought on by the toxicity of conventional drugs are a challenging problem associated with chemotherapy. It is understandably problematic to deliver chemotherapeutic medications precisely to the affected site of something like the colon in a predictable and dependable manner. Chemotherapy and surgery were the only options available to cancer patients for a long time. The prognosis for CRC has never been good, especially for patients with metastatic cancers. Targeted therapy, a recent optional method, has been successful in extending the overall survival of CRC patients. Following successes with the anti-EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) drug cetuximab and the anti-angiogenesis drug bevacizumab, new medications that inhibit a variety of critical pathways and immunological checkpoints are being developed at an unheard-of rate. Guidelines for the recommended targeted drugs are being updated globally based on the growing body of high-quality clinical research. This study provides a summary of the present CRC-targeted medications and their underlying mechanisms, along with a discussion of their shortcomings and potential future possibilities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Chemotherapeutic medicines, Bevacizumab, Cetuximab, Colorectal cancer</p> 2023-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Mohd Altaf Dar, Aslam Hamid Khan, Mashooq Ahmad Mir, Abrar Bashir Malik A cross-sectional study on public knowledge and awareness of antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in Mangalore, India 2023-05-28T17:08:11+00:00 Ramdas Bhat Preeti Shanbhag A Ramakrishna Shabaraya <p><strong>Background:</strong> Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global public health issue that requires immediate attention. <strong>Aim:</strong> This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to antibiotics and AMR among the general population in Mangalore, India. <strong>Materials and Method:</strong> A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 250 participants, out of which 220 were used for reporting results, and 30 were excluded due to incompleteness. <strong>Result:</strong> The results showed that many participants had limited knowledge regarding the proper use of antibiotics, and a significant number tended to misuse them. 74.3% of participants did not complete the full course of antibiotics, and 51.82% used leftover antibiotics for the same cases. On the other hand, the majority of participants recognized the importance of checking the expiry date of antibiotics 80.91% said yes and 66.36% agreed that unnecessary use of antibiotics causes bacterial resistance. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study highlights the gaps in public knowledge and practices related to antibiotics and AMR in Mangalore, India. It underscores the need for more public education and awareness campaigns to prevent the misuse and overuse of antibiotics, and to prevent the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. A multi-faceted approach that involves healthcare providers, policymakers, and the public is necessary to tackle this global public health challenge.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ramdas Bhat, Preeti Shanbhag, A Ramakrishna Shabaraya Effect of Adenosine on Purinergic receptors in the treatment of gastric ulcers in Wistar albino rats 2023-05-28T17:08:26+00:00 Aslam Hamid Khan Mohd Altaf Dar Mashooq Ahmad Mir Abrar Bashir Malik <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Ulcers are deep lesions penetrating through the entire thickness of the gastrointestinal tract (g.i.t) mucosa. It is believed that the Gastric ulcer develops due to an imbalance between aggressive factors (Helicobacter pylori, NSAIDs, Gastric acid) and protective factors (mucin, bicarbonate, prostaglandins), leading to the interruption in the mucosal integrity. Gastric ulcer, also known as peptic ulcer, is a localized area of erosion in the stomach lining, resulting in abdominal pain, possible bleeding and other gastrointestinal symptoms. The most common cause of gastric ulcer is a stomach infection associated with the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria. Current treatment and management of gastric ulcer disease include proton pump inhibitors, Ulcer protective agents, anti-histamines, anticholinergics, antacids, and anti-H.pylori drugs etc. <strong>Aim:</strong> The present study was designed to investigate the potential role of adenosine in indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in Wistar rats. This study also aims to explore the role of purinergic receptors in gastric ulcers.<strong> Materials and method:</strong> Gastric ulcer was induced in Wistar rats (180-210g) of either sex by administration of indomethacin (5mg/kg, p.o., 14 days) and the animals were sacrificed, stomachs were removed for estimation of various parameters such as ulcer index, mucin percentage, percentage of inhibition of ulcer index, estimation of pH. Biochemical estimations such as MDA, GSH, SOD and MPO activity were performed. <strong>Results:</strong> Administration of indomethacin in Wistar rats leads to gastric ulcers by an increase in ulcer index, decrease in mucin percentage and decrease in pH. The biochemical parameters like MDA and MPO are found to increase in the indomethacin control group.GSH and SOD were found to decrease than in the normal control group. Now the administration of a test drug (adenosine) was found helpful in the treatment of gastric ulcers in Wistar rats by decreasing the ulcer index, increase in pH and increase in mucin percentage. The biochemical parameters MDA and MPO were found to decrease and increase in GSH and SOD when compared with the control group. Theophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, shows increased gastric ulceration compared to the control group. Thus, the present data demonstrated that adenosine benefits gastric ulcers. Also, the present data demonstrate purinergic receptors' possible role in adenosine's cytoprotective effect.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>Keywords: </strong>Ulcers, Wistar rats, adenosine, indomethacin</p> <p> </p> 2023-05-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Aslam Hamid Khan, Mohd Altaf Dar, Mashooq Ahmad Mir, Abrar Bashir Malik